Beneath the elaborate wigs that fashionable men wore from the mid-seventeenth to the late eighteenth century, their heads were usually shaved. While relaxing at home, an informal hat kept their heads warn. These undress caps took a number of forms and were constructed from luxurious silks, velvets, and wools. Humbler versions, such as this example made of fine cotton with undyed natural silk tambour embroidery, rarely survive. The technique is characteristic of the skilled embroiderers working in the area of Bengal on the northeastern coast of India. The shape is indebted to earlier Tudor and Elizabethan caps, which were often constructed from four pointed quarters joined along their curved edges. This cap was made from four triangular quadrants of white cotton, embroidered identically with stylized branches, blossoms, and leaves and accented with a border of serpentine guilloche on the wide up-turned brim. The separate pattern pieces were first embroidered on one side, and then flipped over and worked on the other so that the embroidery would show around the entire circumference of the cap with a minimum of cutting.